Day 1 :
Georgia Regents University, USA
Time : 09:45-10:20
Alexander D Verin has completed his PhD from Moscow State University, Moscow Russia and Postdoctoral studies from University of Indiana, School of Medicine. Currently he is a Professor of Vascular Biology and Medicine at Vascular Biology Center and Pulmonary Division at Georgia Regents University, Augusta, GA. He has published more than 135 papers in reputed journals and serving as an Academic Editor of Cardiology and Angiology and an Editorial Board Member in several other journals in the field of pulmonary and cardiovascular research such as Cardiovascular Pharmacology, Journal of Multidisciplinary Pathology, Journal of Vascular Diagnostics, The Journal of Biopharmaceutics Sciences, Tissue Barriers, World Journal of Respirology. In addition, he served as Editorial Board Member in American Journal of Physiology (Lung) from 2006 to 2011 and was a reviewer for a number of highly regarded journals (ex. Circulation Research, Critical Care Medicine, Physiological Reviews, PNAS).
Endothelial cells (EC) form a semi-permeable barrier between the interior space of blood vessels and the underlying tissues. In acute lung injury (ALI) the EC barrier is weakened leading to increased permeability. The mechanisms that govern the highly clinically relevant process of increased EC permeability are under intense investigation. Little is known about the processes that determine barrier enhancement or preservation. Recently, attention has been given to the therapeutic potential of purinergic agonists in the treatment of cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases. Our data indicate that ATP and its degradation product adenosine are able to protect and restore EC barrier in vitro and in vivo. We and others show that adenosine induces rapid increases in cAMP level and activation of protein kinase A (PKA)/myosin light chain (MLC) phosphatase (MLCP) cascade and this correlates with a significant attenuation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced EC permeability. In contrast, ATP induced PKA/MLCP activation and EC barrier enhancement without increase in cAMP. We also have shown the involvement of P2Y receptors coupled to Gi2 or Gq (for ATP) and P1 A2A receptors coupled to Gs (for adenosine) in purine-induced EC barrier enhancement. In addition, we have shown that inhibition of MLCP leads to the phosphorylation of several cytoskeletal targets, which correlates with permeability increase suggesting that dephosphorylation of these proteins may be involved in the barrier-enhancing effect. Further, introduction of active MLCP subunits into the lung endothelium reduces LPS-induced lung inflammation strongly supporting the positive role of MLCP activity in EC barrier preservation against ALI in murine model. Collectively, our data strongly suggest that EC barrier preservation induced by extracellular purines is dependent upon activation of specific purinergic receptor/G-protein complexes. Further, purine-induced EC barrier preservation requires the coordinated activation of PKA signaling and MLCP activation leading to EC cytoskeletal changes.
Auckland University of Technology, New Zealand
Time : 10:20-10:55
Ahmed Al-Jumail did PhD and MSc from the Ohio State University and BSc from the University of Baghdad. He is a Fellow member of the ASME, and a member of 11 other international professional societies. He is the Editor of the ASME monograph series-Biomedical and Nanomedical Technologies and the Editor in Chief of the Journal of Biomedical Engineering and Technology, and has been on the editorial and refereeing boards for several international journals. He has published more than 270 papers in international journals and conference proceedings including two ASME books on Vibration and Acoustics in Biomedical Applications and a third one on CPAP devices. He has supervised more than 90 Postgraduate students in biomedical applications, vibrations, biomechanics, and electroactive polymers. During his academic career, he forged strong alliances between academia and industries; in particular in the medical devices area. His current research focuses on biomedical applications with particular interest in the application of vibration and acoustics to airways constriction therapies and artery non-invasive diagnostics.
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), asthma and respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) are three lung diseases associated with narrowing of the airway passages which is attributed to either collapse of the upper airways, airway constriction and/or lack of surfactant generation, respectively. These ailments are the major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide and have serious negative contributions to the quality of life. Each one of these ailments has different mechanisms and are stimulated by various physiological activities, some are biochemical while others are biophysical. Various pharmaceutical treatments are available, but very seldom without side effects. Pressurizing the lung, such as using continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) method to reduce the airway narrowness has been an effective treatment method for some cases. This presentation elaborates on how this treatment method can be enhanced and improved using pressure oscillation (PO). Some successful cases including clinical trials, tissue testing and an animal model will be discussed to show the successful results of using PO in the treatment of OSA, asthma and RDS. While in vitro as well as in vivo experiments have demonstrated that length oscillations can reduce forces in contracted airway smooth muscles (the main driving mechanism for asthma attack), it has been proven that PO improves lung compliance, inflammatory stresses on patients and preserves surfactant function. This presentation highlights how engineering innovation can convert PO to a lung therapy and how this could be expanded further to the cell level to achieve asthma therapy. Is this an alternative and/or supplement to inhalers? Can oscillation help to reduce the use of current relaxants
Motivator Tobacco Treatment and Wellness Services, USA
Time : 11:20-11:55
Janet M Urban is a lifelong resident of Central New York and currently resides in Nedrow. She holds an MS in Special Education and has taught for OCM BOCES for the past fifteen years. She holds certifications as a Tobacco Treatment Specialist from the Mayo Clinic Nicotine Dependence Center, Rochester, MN and as a Facilitator for the “Freedom from Smoking” program through the American Lung Association. She also holds certification as: Personal Trainer through WITS (World Instruction Training Schools), “Practical Yoga for Personal Trainers” and “Holistic Fitness Specialist” through the Academy of Holistic Fitness. She is also certified as a Work-Based Learning Coordinator through SUNY Buffalo. She provides individual consultations, customized treatment plans and group counseling smoking cessation services.
There is much literature on smoking cessation. As a worker in the substance abuse field it is necessary to gain insight into the facts, implications and treatments for smoking cessation. Areas to be briefly discussed in this lecture include the following highlights from my recently published book:There is a long history of tobacco use and findings in regards to tobacco use including the following time periods: “The Emerging Awareness of Tobacco’s Hazardous Effects”, “Taking Action”, and “The New Millennium”. Tobacco Dependence is a chronic Biopsychosocial disease characterized by frequent relapse. It has the same manifestation, maintenance and course that addictions have, and it has the same rationale for treatment as other chemical dependencies. Further, it has been found that there is a high morbidity rate related to tobacco use and dependence in people with co-occurring disorders including alcohol and other drug dependencies along with other serious mental disorders. There are multiple biological reasons that clients use tobacco and one proven solution is Nicotine Replacement Therapy as it is safe and has little potential for abuse. Supportive counseling such as group and individual has been shown to be successful in treatment. Various counseling models include: Psychological, Social, Integrative, The five A’s Intervention Tool, Motivational Interviewing, Stage of Change Model, Cognitive Behavior Therapy, Decisional Balance Model, Relapse Prevention Therapy, Behavior Therapy, and Cognitive Social Learning Therapy among others. Tobacco treatment plans include assessment, Integrated Program Therapy Activities and Relapse Prevention strategies. The tobacco industry targets those with mental health disorders. 44%-80% of this population wants to quit smoking. The system of care for this population should not be limited to a single correct model or approach. Tobacco Treatment Groups include both Tobacco Awareness Groups where it is shown to the client that the relationship with the substance is the problem not the substance itself and Tobacco Recovery Groups where craving management techniques are suggested. In summary, good clinicians assess and evaluate, diagnose substance abuse and dependence, engage patients in treatment, conduct individual and group counseling, and work collaboratively with patients to formulate treatment and treat tobacco dependence.\\\\r\\\\n